Light And Shadow

Cocktail Glass


There’s an intrinsic satisfaction, an aesthetic pleasure, that comes from the experience of light when it plays a prominent, sometimes dominant, role in a photograph or painting. The works of masters such as Vermeer, Rembrandt, Turner and Hooper are largely characterized and revered for the qualities of light they depict. Light and shadow are so pervasive in everyday living we tend not to regard them, but they can contribute to appreciation of the day in addition to artistic contexts.

I have sort of a meditative hypothesis about those moments when we become aware of light and shadow, when we allow ourselves to enjoy and appreciate the forms, contrasts and gradations they delineate in objects like this cocktail glass. Just as sports provides an abundance of metaphors for life and living at the subconscious level, I think images where light is prominent do this as well, particularly still images where there’s time to explore the elements and relationships within the frame.

In life we experience “bright” ideas, “illumination” and “flares” of insight. There’s “light” on the horizon, the “light” and “dark” or “shadow” sides of ourselves. We have “contrasts” in personality, lifestyle preferences and beliefs. We speak of “color” and “values,” which are properties of light. “Transitions” are equivalent to gradation. “Tone” relates to music and variations in emotional intensity. And “patterns,” both in life and imagery, display the qualities of order and repetition. Of course we don’t consciously make these associations when we speak of these qualities, not even when we look at a photograph or painting. But I think the subconscious mind makes these kinds of associations as part of our quest for meaning and significance. Conversely, the role of the conscious mind when confronted with an image is to seek recognition on the way toward analysis and assessment. What is this? Do I like/not like it? Does it move me? Is it curious or provocative? Evocative? Repulsive? Or am I indifferent to it? Objective mind wants to know if something has value or meaning. Subjective mind wants to know how it feels. And that’s the evidence I offer for the hypothesis. We feel something.

Lighting for motion pictures requires the Director of Photography (DP) to begin a lighting design by identifying the scene’s real or studio-replicated environment, including the location of both primary and secondary light sources. Having practiced and taught this procedure, images where light plays an important role automatically urge me to “consider the source.” It’s a phrase my students used when analyzing and designing images, both still and moving, because it results in more potent and true representations. For instance, when working in the studio, where would the light naturally come from, given the situation? And when examining a photograph, Where was the “key” (predominant) light placed? The answer is found by imagining or looking at the shadows. From their placement, one should be able to point to where the light should be placed—or where it was placed. And what kind of light was used? Again, look at the shadows. Those with sharp edges are produced by specular, point-sources like the sun on a clear day or bare bulbs. Images with no shadows or soft edges indicate a source that was diffused in some way. Paying attention to these and other qualities and influences of light (brightness, color, atmosphere, etc.) in an image is more than a technical exercise. It’s an attunement that highness perception, deepens appreciation for the great mystery of light and teaches us how to manage it more effectively at home and in our work. Whether we’re aware of it or not, every image is about the light and what it is doing.

Regarding the mystery of light, physicist Arthur M. Young wrote in The Reflexive Universe: Evolution Of Consciousness, “Light, itself without mass, can create protons and electrons which have mass. Light has no charge, yet the particles it creates do. Since light is without mass, it is nonphysical, of a different nature than physical particles. In fact, for the photon, a pulse of light, time does not exist: clocks stop at the speed of light. Thus mass and hence energy, as well as time, are born from the photon, from light, which is therefore the first kingdom, the first stage of the process that engenders the universe.”

What’s more, increased awareness of the source, qualities and functions of light—in our lived spaces as well as in photographic or painted images—deepens our appreciation for the capacity of sight. Had evolution not provided the combination of eyes to collect lightwaves and brains to interpret them, we would only be feeling the radiation that comes from the sun—and every other source.

Light created the eye as an organ with which to appreciate itself.

Johann Wolfgang Goethe

Light is energy and it’s also information, content, form, and structure. It’s the potential of everything.

David Bohm

About This Image

Title: Cocktail Glass

Theme: Light And Shadow

File #: DC1898

I made this image at a time when I was trying to create gradations using only one light. Linda knew this and she purchased this glass for me as a surprise. The background was a piece of white plexiglass, chosen for its lack of texture. Under it was a piece of white paper to lighten it to middle gray. To make the shadows sharp and the highlights specular, the light source was a bare 500 watt quartz bulb.

With the cocktail glass laying on its side, I moved the light around to see where it maximized the shadow and flare patterns. After locating the light in that position, I made a series of exposures using different aperture settings to vary the depth of field. One shot had everything tack sharp, but the one I preferred—shown above—located critical focus along the line of gradation in the glass’s stem. Glass is one of my favorite objects to photograph in the studio (basement) because it affords the opportunity to feature light over subject matter. This glass was particularly wonderful to play with because it had everything going for it—specular highlights, gradations, color, striations and form without any sign of its manufacture. Now, can you tell where the light was placed?


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